In view of the regulated environment in India in 1970s to early 1990s, there was no interest rate risk as the interest rate were regulated and prescribed by RBI. Spreads between deposits and lending rates were very wide. At that time banks Balance Sheets were not being managed by banks themselves as they were being managed through prescriptions of the regulatory authority and the government. With the deregulation of interest rates, banks were given a large amount of freedom to manage their Balance sheets. Thus, it became necessary to introduce ALM guidelines so that banks can be prevented from big losses on account of wide ALM mismatches.
Reserve Bank of India issued its first ALM Guidelines in February 1999, which was made effective from 1 st April 1999. These guidelines covered, inter alia, interest rate risk and liquidity risk measurement/ reporting framework and prudential limits. Gap statements were required to be prepared by scheduling all assets and liabilities according to the stated or anticipated re-pricing date or maturity date. The Assets and Liabilities at this stage were required to be divided into 8 maturity buckets (1-14 days; 15-28 days; 29-90 days; 91-180 days; 181-365 days, 1-3 years and 3-5 years and above 5 years), based on the remaining period to their maturity (also called residual maturity).. All the liability figures were to be considered as outflows while the asset figures were considered as inflows.
As a measure of liquidity management, banks were required to monitor their cumulative mismatches across all time buckets in their statement of structural liquidity by establishing internal prudential limits with the approval of their boards/ management committees. As per the guidelines, in the normal course, the mismatches (negative gap) in the time buckets of 1-14 days and 15-28 days were not to exceed 20 per cent of the cash outflows in the respective time buckets
Later on RBI made it mandatory for banks to form ALCO (Asset Liability Committee) as a Committee of the Board of Directors to track, monitor and report ALM.
It was in September, 2007, in response to the international practices and to meet the need for a sharper assessment of the efficacy of liquidity management and with a view to providing a stimulus for development of the term-money market, RBI fine tuned these guidelines and it was provided that the banks may adopt a more granular approach to measurement of liquidity risk by splitting the first time bucket (1-14 days at present) in the Statement of Structural Liquidity into three time buckets viz., 1 day (called next day) , 2-7 days and 8-14 days. Thus, banks were asked to put their maturing asset and liabilities in 10 time buckets.
Thus as per October 2007 RBI guidelines, banks were advised that the net cumulative negative mismatches during the next day, 2-7 days, 8-14 days and 15-28 days should not exceed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the cumulative outflows, respectively, in order to recognize the cumulative impact on liquidity. Banks were also advised to undertake dynamic liquidity management and prepare the statement of structural liquidity on a daily basis. In the absence of a fully networked environment, banks were allowed to compile the statement on best available data coverage initially but were advised to make conscious efforts to attain 100 per cent data coverage in a timely manner. Similarly, the statement of structural liquidity was to be reported to the Reserve Bank, once a month, as on the third Wednesday of every month. The frequency of supervisory reporting of the structural liquidity position was increased to fortnightly, with effect from April 1, 2008. Banks are now required to submit the statement of structural liquidity as on the first and third Wednesday of every month to the Reserve Bank.
Board’s of the Banks were entrusted with the overall responsibility for the management of risks and required to decide the risk management policy and set limits for liquidity, interest rate, foreign exchange and equity price risks.
Asset-Liability Committee (ALCO), the top most committee to oversee the implementation of ALM system is to be headed by CMD /ED. ALCO considers product pricing for both deposits and advances, the desired maturity profile of the incremental assets and liabilities in addition to monitoring the risk levels of the bank. It will have to articulate current interest rates view of the bank and base its decisions for future business strategy on this view.
Progress in Adoption of Techniques of ALM by Indian Banks : ALM process involve in identification , measurement and management of risk Parameter. In its original guidelines RBI asked the banks to use traditional techniques like Gap analysis for monitoring interest rates and liquidity risk. At that RBI desired that Indian Banks slowly move towards sophisticated techniques like duration , simulation and Value at risk in future. Now with the passage of time, more and more banks are moving towards these advanced techniques.