RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES (YOJANA)
This article discusses the Rural Development Policies to established several significant programmes for rural development.
The Ministry of Rural Development and the Government of India, in collaboration with the Departments of Rural Development and Land Resources, have been advancing several plans to improve our nation’s rural areas. These programmes are designed to help Indians who live in rural areas because they will ultimately support the country’s economy in the long term.
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POLICIES (YOJNA) BY GOVERNMENT FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
The Government of India has established several significant programmes for rural development, including:
PRADHAN MANTRI AWAAS YOJANA (GRAMIN)/ INDIRA AWAS YOJANA
A welfare programme designed by the Indian Government to offer houses to poor rural people in India was previously known as Indira Awas Yojana. It was redesigned as Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awaas Yojana in 2016. All residents will have a place to live under this programme until 2022. The center and the state will split the cost of building the homes. Except for Delhi and Chandigarh, the scheme has been implemented in rural areas across all of India. Basic utilities like a toilet, an electricity connection, a drinking water connection, an LPG connection, etc., will be included in the homes built under this programme. The houses will be jointly registered in the names of the couple who will receive them.
ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA (AAY)
The Antyodaya Anna Yojana, started by the former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in 2000, sought to provide food grains to about 2 crore people at discounted prices. Families living below the poverty line (BPL) received 35 kg of food grains as part of the programme. Wheat was offered at a rate of Rs 2/kg, while rice was offered at a rate of Rs 3/kg. All Indian states have adopted the programme since it was initially introduced in Rajasthan.
PROVISION OF URBAN AMENITIES IN RURAL AREAS (PURA)
In his book, Target 3 billion, former president APJ Abdul Kalam suggested the PURA approach for rural development in India. In order to develop opportunities outside of cities, PURA suggests providing urban infrastructure and services in rural areas. Additionally, this will stop young people from moving from rural to metropolitan regions. Since its debut in 2004, the Central Government has been implementing PURA initiatives in a number of states.
THE PRADHAN MANTRI GRAM SADAK YOJANA (PMGSY)
The project, introduced on December 25, 2000, by the then-prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, aims to improve rural road connections. This programme offers connectivity to areas that currently have little to no connectivity and contributes to the elimination of poverty by facilitating access to social and economic services. As a result, people have the chance to connect with others around the world, ensuring long-term sustainable poverty reduction. Several communities have benefited from the plan and are now living better lives as a result. Up to December 2017, about 82% of the roads needed to connect many rural areas to cities had already been completed. Prior to the 14th Finance Commission report’s proposal, the plan was entirely funded by the central government; now, both the state and the federal governments are responsible for funding it. According to the most recent information available on the PMGSY website, the government has finished 1,69,129 roads totalling a length of 705,179 km under the programme.
SANSAD ADARSH GRAM YOJANA (SAGY)
The Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) is an initiative for rural development that the Government of India launched in 2014. Under this programme, each Member of Parliament will be given responsibility for three villages and be in charge of their personal, human, social, environmental, and economic development. The standard of living and the quality of life in the villages would both significantly improve as a result. This project has not received any funding because funds can be obtained through current programmes.
NATIONAL RURAL LIVELIHOOD MISSION/DEENDAYAL ANTYODAYA YOJANA
The National Rural Livelihood Mission, formerly known as the Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, was introduced in 2011 by the Ministry of Rural Development. This programme, also known as Ajeevika, strives to empower women through self-help models all around the nation. In accordance with this programme, the government offers a loan of 3 lakh rupees at a 7% interest rate that can be lowered to 4% upon repayment. The World Bank provided assistance for the programme, which aimed to build strong institutional foundations for the underprivileged. It also contributed to higher household income by making financial services more accessible.
THE PRIME MINISTER RURAL DEVELOPMENT FELLOWS SCHEME
A programme developed by the Ministry of Rural Development and carried out in cooperation with State Governments is known as the Prime Minister Rural Development Fellowship (PMRDF). Its dual objectives are to develop capable and dedicated leaders and facilitators who can act as resources in the long run, as well as to provide short-term help to the district administration in the underdeveloped and distant sections of the country.
THE NATIONAL SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (NSAP)
It demonstrates compliance with the Directive Principles in Articles 41 and 42 of the Constitution, which indicate that the state has a duty to support its citizens in the event of illness, unemployment, or old age, within the bounds of its financial capacity. In essence, it is a centrally funded programme of the Indian government that offers pensions to widows, the aged, and those with disabilities. The programme was introduced on August 15th, 1995. More than 2.9 crore persons have already benefited from the NSAP, and with the addition of 1.5 crore state beneficiaries, this number rises to more than 4 crore.
MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT (MGNREGA)
A rural household adult who is willing to perform unskilled manual labour is guaranteed 100 days of employment under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) of 2005. The Act speaks to the working class and their fundamental right to a dignified existence. A person is entitled to get unemployment benefits if they are unemployed for more than 15 days. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) emphasises the value of the fundamental right to employment. This statute has been modified in order to reduce corruption in the plan. In India, MGNREGA has reached more than 700 districts.
SAMAGRA SIKSHA CAMPAIGN
The Sarv Siksha Abhiyan was started by former prime minister Atal Bihari Bajpayee and introduced in 2000. However, the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), Teacher Education, and the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan were merged into the Samagra Siksha Abhiyan in 2018. It aims to give every kid the chance to get a free education, which is also a fundamental right. This project’s costs are split between the state and the federal government, with the federal government paying 85% of them and the state 15%. The government allocated more than 37,383 crore to the programme in the 2022 budget.
DEEN DAYAL UPADHYAYA GRAMEEN KAUSHALYA YOJANA
The Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana, a component of the National Livelihood Mission, aims to support rural youth’s professional goals and diversify rural families’ sources of income. The scheme, which was introduced on September 25, 2014, primarily targets rural children from low-income households between the ages of 15 and 35. A sum of Rs 1500 crores has been allocated for the programme that will improve employability. The Yojana affects 6215 blocks, 568 districts, and 21 States & Union Territories, altering the lives of youth. 300 partners are carrying out about 690 projects.
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