FREE NOTES ON THEORIES OF MOTIVATION – ABM IMPORTANT TOPIC | CAIIB STUDY MATERIAL 2023
The notes are on theories of Motivation from the CAIIB ABM Syllabus for the CAIIB Exam 2023 for the upcoming CAIIB Examination of 2023.
In this article, we will be covering one important topic from the syllabus of advanced Bank management, paper 1 of CAIIB 2023 Exam. This article is very important for the candidates who are preparing for the upcoming CAIIB Exams.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION AND THEIR PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
What is Motivation?
In our daily life, there are times when we feel down i.e. we find ourselves not to get up from our beds. And at those times, what we feel or think about our situation is that our life is lacking motivation somehow.
And when ‘motivation’ is used in the context of organisational place, it is referred to how far the employees are willing to adapt to the requirements of organisation.
The main purpose of motivation is to satisfy the needs or motives of the persons towards whom it is being directed, whether to fulfil the conscious or unconscious needs. It is actually a behavioural concept which is of great importance for the organisations today because of the benefits it can get to the executive and managers.
Theories of Motivation
There are number of theories on the concept of motivation, & the ones which have been describing the syllabus of ABM paper are mentioned below:
- Theory of Abraham Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
- Theory of Achievement Motivation
- Theory of Clayton Alderfer’s ERG
- Theory of Frederick Herzberg’s Two-Factor
- Model of Human Relations
- Theory of James Stacy Adams’ Equity
- Model of Lyman W Porter and Edward E Lawler – Performance Satisfaction
- Theory of Reinforcement
- Scientific Management or Rational Economic View
- Model of Victor H Vroom’s Expectancy
HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR OR MOTIVATION – HYGIENE THEORY
Frederick Herzberg (1959) provided further studies on the work of Maslow and thereby developed a specific content theory of work motivation. He conducted study on around 200 Accountants and engineers from different industries in Pittsburg, USA. The method he used to obtain the data to analyse this theory was critical incident method.
The basis for Herzberg’s theory is a two-factor hypothesis, i.e the factors which lead to job satisfaction & the factors which lead to job dissatisfaction. The factors which were identified by him, has been categorised into two categories:
- Motivational Factors; &
- Hygiene or Maintenance Factors
These are the factors which are directly related to the job and when present they result in highly motivational situation although their absence does not is result in dissatisfaction. Six of such factors has been mentioned by Herzberg:
- Work itself
- Possibility of Growth
From the above factors, achievement and responsibility are directly related to the job while the Other mentioned factors originate from the job. These 6 sets of factors have been named as motivators or satisfiers and relates to the job work.
Hygiene or Maintenance Factors
The factors related to hygiene and maintenance do not mainly results in motivation for employees but their absence could result in serious dissatisfaction. If employees do not find these factors, they find themselves demotivated to work which results in increase in their level of performance.
Most of these maintenance factors relates to the environment, which are outside the job. 10 of such factors has been identified by Herzberg:
- Company policy and its administration
- Interpersonal relations with colleagues & peers
- Interpersonal relations with juniors
- Interpersonal relations with supervisors
- Security of Job
- Personal life of employees
- Status in the organisation
- Technical supervision
- Working conditions
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MOTIVATION & BEHAVIOUR
As previously mentioned, Individual’s behaviour is highly motivated by his or her desire to fulfil his or her goal. If you are to define behaviour – it means either an activity or a series of activities and in relation to motivation, each of such activity is supported by motivation.
The term motive – has been defined as the need, want or impulse which resides in an individual. The motives are directed towards goal achievement, whether it’s done consciously or subconsciously.
Goals are usually outside an individual, which he or she desires to achieve by hoping that their behaviour will get them there.
Motivation to Work
Every person who is Managing need to know the specific ways and methods by which employees can be motivated to work efficiently in the job. Most of these techniques practical in nature and can be easily adopted and applied by him or her in the normal course of his or her duties.
Some of the common incentives used to motivate the employees are: Money, appreciation, job enrichment, job rotation, job enlargement, participative management, & work quality.
The below mentioned factors contribute largely to increase the quality of work life of employees:
- Having a safe and healthy environment
- A good mix of job career and family life as well as leisure time (integration)
- Fair and adequate compensation to the Employees
- A healthy environment in which every employee can develop his or her self-esteem and create his or her sense of Identity
- Security and growth which is aimed to expand the capability of employees rather than leaving them as to be.
- Environment where there is a scope to develop and possibility of using the employee’s skills and abilities
- Protection and respect for every employee’s privacy, descend and equity
Role Set Conflicts
who expect different things from their roles in the organisations. It can lead to conflict because of the incompatibility among the employee’s expectations due to their uniqueness and personal reasons.
These conflicts can be in the form of:
- Role ambiguity
- Role Expectation Conflict
- Role Overload
- Role Erosion
- Resource Inadequacy
- Personal Inadequacy
- Role Isolation
We hope that you would have found the above article useful if you are preparing for the advanced banking management exam from the syllabus of CAIIB 2023.
If you found this article useful, you can tell us in the comments which will keep us motivated to keep posting such articles for your benefit.
All the best for the upcoming CAIIB Exam!