DEFINITION, SCOPE AND ACCOUNTING STANDARDS | AFB NOTES OF JAIIB
Accounting is popularly known as a business language. Like any other language, the purpose which accounting serves is a means of communication. In this context, the basic function of accounting is to report the operations of the business and the financial health of the business.
FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING
It is basically an art through which business transactions are recorded, classified and summarised. Not only recording, but accounting records business transactions in an orderly manner, classification is done on the basis of the nature of transactions before they are actually recorded in the books of accounts.
The recorded data is summarised so that it could be presented in a systematic way: Three forms or formats in which the accounting data can be presented:
- Trial Balance
- Profit and loss account and
- Balance sheet
MONEY MEASUREMENT: In accounting, transactions are recorded in terms of money. And because money is the only unit of measurement for recording transactions and business, any other transactions which cannot be measured in terms of money, will not find their way in the books of accounts.
Although having the transactions which can be measured in money is more meaningful. This way, it can be safely said that:
- Accounting because transactions which have a financial character.
- Accounting interprets the data given in the finance terms
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES OF ACCOUNTING
The main purpose of accounting is given below:
- To maintain records in a systematic way
- To find out the results of the business operations
- To find out where the business stands in financial terms
- To help make rational decisions based on data
- To fulfill the requirements of the Companies Act, societies act, income Tax Act and many more Acts.
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TYPES OF ACCOUNTING:
Accounting is done in different aspects of businesses such as:
- Financial Accounting
- Management Accounting
- Human Resource Accounting
- Cost Accounting
- Social Responsibility Accounting
- Inflation Accounting
ACCOUNTING STANDARDS IN INDIA AND ITS DEFINITION AND SCOPE
In 1977, the need to harmonize the diverse policies and practices of accounting was recognised by ICAI (The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India), as a result of which the ‘Accounting Standards Board’ came into existence. The main function of the ASB was to roll out accounting standards so that the ICAI counsel can issue such a standard as mandatory standards.
This board will be responsible to determine the areas in which accounting standards will be formulated or are required to be formulated and as well as determine the priority about selecting thereof.
For the preparation of accounting standards, the accounting standards board will get assistance from various study groups which will study details of specific subjects. These groups will hold dialogues with representatives of public and private sector industries as well as other organisations to understand their views.
Based on the gathered information, an exposure draft will be prepared for the proposed standard which will be issued to the members of ASB for comments and public at large.
After getting the feedback and taking it into consideration, ASB will finalize the exposure draft which will then be submitted to the ICAI council.
An accounting standard which has been issued as a mandatory requirement for the preparation of financial statements, if not followed or in case of any inconsistency, requires that the auditors (members of ICAI) qualify their audit reports. If auditors fail to report such deficiencies, then they will be guilty of professional misconduct.
It is required from the auditors that they qualify the audit reports which do not conform to the mandatory accounting standards by both SEBI & companies Act 2013.
Company Act’s section 134(5) puts responsibility on the board of directors that they comply with the accounting standards which are mandatory to be followed.
As per the section 129(5) of companies Act, if accounting standards are not followed for the preparation of financial statements, companies are required to disclose the following:
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|Accounting & Finance for Bankers Syllabus 2022||JAIIB AFB Study Material PDF 2022||JAIIB AFB Notes PDF 2022||JAIIB AFB Mock Test PDF 2022|
- Deviations from the accounting standards
- The reason for why this division was allowed
- Any financial effects which have resulted from such revision.
So far, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has issued 29 standards which are mentioned below:
LIST OF MANDATORY ACCOUNTING STANDARD
|Standard||Name of the Accounting Standard|
|AS 1||Disclosure of Accounting Policies|
|AS 2||Valuation of Inventories|
|AS 3||Cash Flow Statements|
|AS 4||Contingencies & Events Occurring after the Balance Sheet Date|
|AS 5||Net Profit or Loss for the period, Prior Period & Extraordinary Items and Changes in the Accounting Policies|
|AS 6||Depreciation Accounting|
|AS 7||Accounting for Construction Contracts|
|AS 8||Accounting for Research and Development (deleted)|
|AS 9||Revenue Recognition|
|AS 10||Accounting for Fixed Assets|
|AS 11||Accounting for the Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates|
|AS 12||Accounting for Government Grants|
|AS 13||Accounting for Investments|
|AS 14||Accounting for Amalgamations|
|AS 15||Accounting for Retirement Benefits in the Financial Statements of Employers|
|AS 16||Borrowing Costs|
|AS 17||Segment Reporting|
|AS 18||Related Party Disclosures|
|AS 20||Earnings per Share|
|AS 21||Consolidated Financial Statements|
|AS 22||Accounting for Taxes on Income|
|AS 23||Accounting for Investments in Associates in Consolidated Financial Statements|
|AS 24||Discontinuing Operations|
|AS 25||Interim Financial Reporting|
|AS 26||Intangible Assets|
|AS 27||Financial Reporting of Interest in Joint Ventures|
|AS 28||Impairment of Assets|
|AS 29||Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets|
LIST OF RECOMMENDATORY ACCOUNTING STANDARD
|Apart from these, there are 3 non-mandatory Accounting Standards:|
|Standard||Name of the Accounting Standard|
|AS 30||Financial Instruments; Recognition and Measurement|
|AS 31||Financial Instruments; Presentation|
|AS 32||Financial Instruments; Disclosures|
US GAAP – GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES OF USA
GAAP or generally accepted accounting principles, are referred to the set of rules which contains all the details, complexities and legalities which year related to the business and corporate accounting. GAAP is used as a Foundation by FASB (financial accounting standards board) for its set of approved accounting methods and practices.
The law in the United States of America, requires that the businesses whose stocks are being traded on stock exchanges, have to release their financial statements which have been prepared taking into account the following key concepts (GAAP guidelines):
- Principle of regularity: Accountants which are required to follow GAAP, have to strictly adhere to the rules and regulations which have been established for the purpose.
- Principle of consistency: The standards are required to be applied consistently and throughout in the process of financial reporting
- Principle of sincerity: Accountants have to follow these standards accurately and with impartiality.
- Principle of permanence of methods: Procedures which are followed for the preparation of all the financial reports have to be consistent.
- Principle of non-compensation: All positive or negative aspects of performance of the organisation have to be fully reported.
- Principle of prudence: Speculation should not be a part of the financial data which is being reported.
- Principle of continuity: While making the valuations of the assets it is assumed that the efficiency of the organisation will continue in the near future.
- Principle of periodicity: The revenues are reported after being divided by the time periods. e.g. Fiscal quarters or years.
- Principle of materiality: Financial reporting is done to report and disclose all the monetary situation which is material in nature.
- Principle of utmost good faith: It is basically assumed that all the parties which are involved in the preparation of financial statements are acting honestly.
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